Embryonic and adult stem cells as a source for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease
Trial of Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson's Bradykinesia Doses 1st Patient
NCBI Bookshelf. Authors Thomas Benjamin Stoker. There are no disease-modifying treatments, and current management is centered on symptom control using predominantly dopaminergic drugs. While effective at improving the motor symptoms of PD, these treatments result in significant adverse effects, due to non-targeted and non-physiological delivery of dopamine to the brain. For many years, there has been interest in cell grafting as a potential means of restoring dopamine to the striatum in a physiological manner, which would theoretically treat the symptoms of PD that are due to dopamine deficiency, without the motor and neuropsychiatric adverse effects that are seen with dopaminergic medications. A number of cell sources have been trialed in PD patients, but lack of efficacy, ethical and logistical barriers have meant that most of these do not offer useful treatment options.
A Review of Stem Cell–Based Therapies for Parkinson Disease
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The rationale behind the use of cells as therapeutic modalities for neurodegenerative diseases in general, and in Parkinson's disease PD in particular, is that they will improve patient's functioning by replacing the damaged cell population. It is reasoned that these cells will survive, grow neurites, establish functional synapses, integrate best and durably with the host tissue mainly in the striatum, renew the impaired wiring, and lead to meaningful clinical improvement. To increase the generation of dopamine, researchers have already transplanted non-neuronal cells, without any genetic manipulation or after introduction of genes such as tyrosine hydroxylase, in animal models of PD. Because these cells were not of neuronal origin, they developed without control, did not integrate well into the brain parenchyma, and their survival rates were low. Clinical experiments using cell transplantation as a therapy for PD have been conducted since the s.